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Convinces reader to agree with you/do something


Essays to Reference:  Health Clubs, 266; Pet Therapy, 101; Penny, 591; Part–Time, 541



1.  Target Audience: 

·       Don’t know, don’t care, or don’t agree

(What kind of audience does each author have?)

*If no controversy, no argument


2.  Purpose:  Inform audience who doesn’t know; convince audience who doesn’t agree; interest audience who doesn’t care; persuade audience who doesn’t do. 


3.  Narrowed Proposition/Thesis: 

Claim that identifies what your reader should think/do after reading:  Very specific!

·       Male & female athletes should get equal pay.

·       Ride the bus!

*How might the above topics be narrowed?





Support for Arguments:


Reason:  Topic Sentence

Support:  Evidence that “backs up” statement made in topic sentence


 Types of support (from weakest to strongest): 


Examples:  Must be relevant & representative

(¶2, 591; Health Clubs; Pet Therapy; Part–Time)


Authorities:  Opinions of recognized experts

(Which essay offers expert opinions?)


Facts/Statistics:  Make sure they are solid

(Where does Safire offer facts and stats?  Steinberg?  Pechter?  Whose are most credible?)


*You will use quotes & paraphrases for the latter 2