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*Influences your audience to agree or do (not know).




1.  Proposition:  Claim; what the reader should think/do

*This is stated in your thesis.


2.  Opposition:  The other side

*May not be your audience (Ex:  Subliminal Messages)

a.  Acknowledge the opposition:

·       Who are they?

·       What do they believe?

·       What are their reasons for believing as they do?


b.  Address the opposition:

1.  Concession:  Admitting you can’t refute a point

Ex: Collins, 39 (2)  

2.  Refutation:  Argue against a point

Ex:  McKibben, 306 (¶15)

*This may involve analyzing a fallacy

Ex:  Faulty Logic:  “Unless you’re a hemorrhoid, get off my a*$.”

3.  Rebuttal:  Counterpoint against a refutation

*Rebuttal to McKibben’s refutation—Won’t stimulate economy (no tax; not to a profit-making organization).


3.  Support:  Reasons & evidence to back up your claim


*Kinds of support for each reason: 

·       Facts and Statistics:  Make sure they are solid

·       Specific Examples:  They must be representative rather than isolated (i.e. Devin Moore)

·       Expert Opinion:  Must be qualified to speak to issue


*Important:  There MUST be a controversy of some sort; there is no argument if everyone agrees.