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Emotional Fallacies

 

Manipulate you; go against logic and ethics

 

1.  Ad Hominem (“against the man”):  Slandering a person; “Claiming that irrelevant personal qualities should be considered reason to qualify or disqualify an individual for a particular office, position, honor or role” (Stanford 61) 

·       Using President Bush’s dishonesty over his service to our country

·       Using Bill Clinton’s infidelity

     

http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:10d_c5ifnPmtUM:http://www.telegraph.co.uk/telegraph/multimedia/archive/00659/news-graphics-2008-_659203a.jpg

 

2.  Straw Man:  Directing unsubstantiated charges against somebody, especially to cast a shadow over his name even after he is found innocent

 

http://www.popcrunch.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/oj-simpson.jpg


3.  Bandwagon:  Implying that because a majority is doing something, it is justified

·       If we allow developing countries to pollute more, we should allow everyone to do so.

·       “Everyone else was going 80!”

 

The Bandwagon Approach

 

4.  Ad Populum (“Plain Folk”):  Appealing to a certain group by acting as if you are one of them.

·       Hillary Clinton drinking a beer and taking a shot of whiskey when on the campaign trail.

 

 hillary clinton indiana beer bitterhttp://themoderatevoice.com/wordpress-engine/files/2008-april/hillarydrinking.jpg

 

 


 

 

5.  Status Appeal:  Appealing to the reader’s desire to be beautiful, powerful, respected

·       Jesus selling items in the parlor

·       Expensive brand names

 

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2005/05/18/fashion/19joss_xl.jpg

 

6.  Scare Tactics:  Scaring the reader into action

·       Billboard re: a smoker’s lung

·       Showing pictures of mangled cars

 

http://www.csmngt.com/tobacco_addiction.htm

 


 

7.  Testimonial/Improper Appeal to Authority:  Having a well—known figure support something, even though s/he is not really qualified to talk about it

·       Sally Fields and Boniva

·       A “Dr.” from TV promoting a drug/treatment

·       Martin Sheen’s auto-dial message encouraging people to support certain candidates

 

http://bp1.blogger.com/_DRGsoX5MvFM/SISSRj19E-I/AAAAAAAAAHA/fQ2j6XrMQbU/s400/dk.jpg               https://www.rocheusa.com/newsroom/images/Sally.jpg

 

8.  Glittering Generality:  Using phrases that sound good but lack clear definition or substance

·       You’re in good hands with Allstate.

·       Beef.  It’s what’s for dinner.

 

http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:VkEj8vb1aRvrXM:http://api.ning.com/files/YGxMkz9VmsogYOXxguqAU205-kovnfF9ekU1i0yntLMtm7Itb0VBGeWbU*KwMwGl4dpiKbbVvM9vWCvvrXqdQWXT79G*DFG9/JustDoItv3.jpg                                  http://tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:h-ItuhJr7FVVZM:http://russelldavies.typepad.com/planning/beef_1.jpg