Manipulate you; go against logic and ethics
1. Ad Hominem (“against the man”): Slandering a person; “Claiming that irrelevant personal qualities should be considered reason to qualify or disqualify an individual for a particular office, position, honor or role” (Stanford 61)
· Using President Bush’s dishonesty over his service to our country
· Using Bill Clinton’s infidelity
2. Straw Man: Directing unsubstantiated charges against somebody, especially to cast a shadow over his name even after he is found innocent
3. Bandwagon: Implying that because a majority is doing something, it is justified
· If we allow developing countries to pollute more, we should allow everyone to do so.
· “Everyone else was going 80!”
4. Ad Populum (“Plain Folk”): Appealing to a certain group by acting as if you are one of them.
· Hillary Clinton drinking a beer and taking a shot of whiskey when on the campaign trail.
5. Status Appeal: Appealing to the reader’s desire to be beautiful, powerful, respected
· Jesus selling items in the parlor
· Expensive brand names
6. Scare Tactics: Scaring the reader into action
· Billboard re: a smoker’s lung
· Showing pictures of mangled cars
7. Testimonial/Improper Appeal to Authority: Having a well—known figure support something, even though s/he is not really qualified to talk about it
· Sally Fields and Boniva
· A “Dr.” from TV promoting a drug/treatment
· Martin Sheen’s auto-dial message encouraging people to support certain candidates
8. Glittering Generality: Using phrases that sound good but lack clear definition or substance
· You’re in good hands with Allstate.
· Beef. It’s what’s for dinner.